A woman is sitting while a man stands behind her and puts his hand over her mouth.

Muted Group Theory: Women in the Christian Church

Are women in the Christian Church a muted group?

The interesting outcome of that question is that depending on your gender identity, you may answer one way or another.

If you subscribe to my newsletter, you know that this Fall, I began a Master’s program in Communication and Leadership at Gonzaga University.

The final project in my first class is to present a communication theory and personal case study. Students have the option of writing a paper or getting creative.

Given the nature of the subject, I thought it would be best to lift words from paper and showcase the voice of a muted group I know all too well.


Barkman, L. (2018). Muted Group Theory: A Tool for Hearing Marginalized Voices. Priscilla Papers, 32(4), 3-7.

Cunningham, C., Hazel, M., Hayes, T. (2020). Communication and Leadership 2020: Intersectional, Mindful, and Digital. Communication Research Trends, 39(1), 4-31.

Griffin, E., Ledbetter, A., Sparks, G. (2015). A First Look at Communication Theory. (Ninth Edition). McGraw-Hill Education.

Kramarae, C. (2005). Muted Group Theory and Communication: Asking Dangerous Questions. Women and Language, 28(2), 55-61.


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Carly Voinski is a creator sharing her grad school story.

Carly is a creator and digital media strategist working her way through a graduate program in Communication & Leadership.

She’s sharing her story with you so that you can win at work.

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